Animals continuously decide among different behaviors, but, even in invertebrates, the mechanisms underlying choice and decision are unknown. In this article, leech spontaneous behavior was tracked and quantified for up to 12 h.

We obtained a statistical characterization, in space and time domains, of the decision processes underlying selection of behavior in the leech. We found that the spatial distribution of leech position in a uniform environment is isotropic the same in all directionsbut this isotropy is broken in the presence of localized external stimuli.

In the time domain, transitions among behaviors can be described by a Markov process, the structure of which allowed states and transitions is highly conserved across individuals.

Finally, a wide range of recurrent, deterministic motifs was identified in the apparently irregular and unstructured exploratory behavior. These results provide a rigorous description of the inner dynamics that control the spontaneous and continuous flow of behavioral decisions in the leech.

The Importance of Statistics in Management Decision Making

Location of Repository. Garcia-Perez, A.

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Mazzoni, D. Zoccolan, H. Robinson and V. OAI identifier: oai:iris. Provided by: Sissa Digital Library.

statistics of decision making in the leech

Suggested articles.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Elizabeth Garcia. Statistics of Decision Making in the Leech.

In this article, leech spontaneous behavior was tracked and quantified for up to 12 h. We obtained a statistical characterization, in space and time domains, of the decision processes underlying selection of behavior in the leech.

We found that the spatial distribution of leech position in a uniform environment is isotropic the same in all directionsbut this isotropy is broken in the presence of localized external stimuli. In the time domain, transitions among behaviors can be described by a Markov process, the structure of which allowed states and transitions is highly conserved across individuals.

Finally, a wide range of recurrent, deterministic motifs was identified in the apparently irregular and unstructured exploratory behavior. These results provide a rigorous description of the inner dynamics that control the spontaneous and continuous flow of behavioral decisions in the leech.

Key words: leech behavior; dynamics; recurrence plot; periodic motion; exploratory motion; Markov process Introduction the inner neural dynamics that control spontaneous transitions Animals react to changes of the environment by responding with from one behavioral category to another when animals are in an an appropriate behavior Tinbergen, ; Drewes,from almost uniform and stable environment.

This issue needs an al- simple escape responses in invertebrates Furshpan and Potter, ternative approach based on the analysis of the temporal struc- ; Zucker, ; Bennett,to decision strategies in ture of unconstrained animal behavior, which has been applied primates Barraclough et al.

An understanding of the de- successfully in the analysis of behavior of different species Bress- cision process and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the se- ers et al. As the pioneering work of sensory psychology and psycho- tions between these categories over a period of many hours. More recently, neural correlates underlying de- ties and neuronal circuitry of which are relatively well understood cision processes have been investigated in primates performing Baader and Kristan, ; Brodfuehrer and Thorogood, ; visual recognition tasks Freedman et al.

The animal was positioned in an almost homo- Shadlen, ; Barraclough et al.

Meaning and Importance of Decision Making

An automatic system based on im- Ditterich et al. Similar experimental paradigms in simple aging with a CCD camera tracked three colored beads attached to invertebrates, such as the leech, revealed the existence of non- the back of the leech and recorded its motion for up to 12 h. Shaw and Kristan, ; Esch et al. We thank Dr. William Kristan for valuable scientific suggestions and helpful comments on this manuscript.

E-mail: torre sissa. Animals and preparations D. Two different kinds of preparations were used.Read this article to learn about the characteristics, nature, basis, types and conditions of decision making.

Decision-making is an important job of a manager. Every day he has to decide about doing or not doing a particular thing. A decision is the selection from among alternatives. It is the selection of one course of action from two or more alternative courses of action. A decision represents a course of behaviour chosen from a number of possible alternatives. Decision-making is based on rational thinking.

The manager tries to foresee various possible effects of a decision before deciding a particular one. It involves the evaluation of various alternatives available. The selection of best alternative will be made only when pros and cons of all of them are discussed and evaluated. A decision is always related to some problem, difficulty or conflict.

statistics of decision making in the leech

Decisions help in solving problems or resolving conflicts. There are always differences of opinions, judgments, etc. Managerial decision helps in maintaining group effectiveness.

statistics of decision making in the leech

All problems may not require decision- making but merely the supply of information may be sufficient. For example, when will different groups report for re-orientation? The supply of information about training programme may be enough. Decision problems necessitate a choice from different alternatives. A number of possibilities are selected before making a final selection.

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Decision-making requires something more than a selection. The material requiring a decision may be available but still a decision may not be reached. A decision needs some sort of prediction for the future on the basis of past and present available information.

The effect of a decision is to be felt in future so it requires proper analysis of available material and a prediction for the future. If decision premises do not come true, then decision itself may be wrong. Sometimes decisions are influenced by adopting a follow- the-leader practice.

The leader of the group or an important manager of a concern sets the precedent and others silently follow that decision. Whatever has been decided by the leader becomes a guide for others and they also follow suit. The decisions may also emerge from answers to pertinent questions about the problem. Such answers try to narrow down the choice and help in making a decision.

Decision-making has become a complex problem. A number of techniques, extending from guessing to mathematical analyses, are used for decision-making process. The selection of an appropriate technique depends upon the judgment of decision-maker. Decision-making by intuition is characterized by inner feeling of the person.

He takes a decision as per the dictates of his conscious. He thinks about the problem and an answer is found in his mind. The decision-maker has his own preferences, influences, psychological make-up and these things play a vital role in taking a decision.Ask us in our Discussion Forum.

Unit 1: Nature of Management Concept and meaning of Characteristics of Management Management as science, art Management and administration Functions of Management Levels of Management. Unit 2: Principles of Management Meaning of principle of Importance of principles of Principles of scientific management Advantages and Limitations of Nature and Characteristics of Meaning and Principle of Barriers to effective delegation Unit 5: Decision-Making Meaning and Importance of Procedures of effecting life Meaning of fire insurance Procedures of affecting fire Types of fire insurance Marine Insurance Meaning Risk covered under marine Types of marine insurance Go back to subject.

Meaning of decision-making Decision-making is a process of selecting the best among the different alternatives. It is the act of making a choice. There are so many alternatives found in the organization and departments. Decision-making is defined as the selection of choice of one best alternative. Before making decisions all alternatives should be evaluated from which advantages and disadvantages are known. It helps to make the best decisions.

It is also one of the important functions of management. According to Stephen P. Therefore, we can say that decision is important element to implement the managerial function. It must be taken by all staff. Without decision-making any kinds of function is not possible.

So it is pervasive.At some point in your life, you might be encountering stressful situations that require you to make a choice. How will you be able to make informed and objective decisions? This article describes how statistics can help you out of your misery.

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Do you have difficulty in making decisions about personal issues and concerns? Chances are, you are one of those who have decision-making woes especially on personal matters that involve your emotions. How can this be resolved? The use of statistical tools may help you in this situation. It will help you reduce the uncertainty associated with decision-making that can affect your way of life.

The Role of Statistics in Decision Making

It reduces the guesswork related to decision making. Below is an example of a personal decision-making scenario that demonstrates the role of statistics in decision-making.

As a practicing statistician for many years, I find the experience of using some tools of statistics like the t-test rather satisfying, especially if I can use it to aid me in decision making. A simple addition of points given for the advantages and disadvantages of a choice may be sufficient in some circumstances, but in some in some instances, more rigorous analysis of statistical data can provide useful information.

statistics of decision making in the leech

Statistics can also verify whether the decision made was, after all, a good one. One concrete, personal experience that demonstrates the role of statistics in decision making happened several years ago. That decision dilemma occurred in I decided to buy a vehicle to meet a personal and professional need. I was then very much concerned about the fuel consumption of my second, probably more accurately, third-hand customized owner-type Toyota jeep I bought from a colleague.

The jeep guzzles up about 1 liter of gasoline for barely 4 or 5 kilometers of road covered! I thought that this is something that need immediate attention, so I decided to bring the jeep to the automotive repair shop. I requested the mechanic for a major engine overhaul, where the engine block has to be re-bored to make way for a cylindrical metal sleeve.

The metal sleeve narrows the opening where the piston is fired up and down by the series of explosions that occur in the combustion chamber. However, this engine-related jargon can confound many people unfamiliar with these terms.

The whole tune up process aimed to eliminate loose compression of fuel in the engine that leads to a minuscule distance to fuel ratio.Business owners face many situations with outcomes that seem unpredictable. For example, your main supplier of a key batch of parts could have a lower cost, but more uncertainty in delivery time. Data and statistics can be used to concretely define and measure this uncertainty and predict when the next shipment is coming.

Managerial decision-making with this statistical insight can avoid steering production, costs and customer service into bad avenues. Many businesses rely on their Information Technology IT systems to manage data, facilitate payments and run operations.

Unforeseen bottlenecks can occur when IT runs a necessary system upgrade, if the implementation stalls and temporarily keeps your business from running smoothly. To combat this, some IT systems have statistical algorithms that find the likely cause for the blockage before your business hits a dead end.

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Other operational benefits of statistics are accurate demand forecasting and sufficient inventory planning. In steering the direction of your business, statistics can be used to guide long-term forecasts for strategic planning.

Analytical methods like statistics support the understanding of the holistic impact that strategic initiatives can have on your business. For example, a statistical model can provide a baseline forecast of your revenues and expenses for years to come, which your team can adjust depending on new product introductions, new markets and competitor activities.

These research studies allow businesses to be proactive through predicting customer behavior and creating better marketing plans. Moreover, statistics can be used in the development and pricing of new products via survey analysis and regression models. Data is abundant for many types of businesses. Whether you seek demographic, attitudinal, or psychographic data, statistics can be used to discover insights from mining the data. For example, the accessibility of statistical tools in low-cost spreadsheet software makes discovering important insights within reach for any business, no matter the size.

Sean Salleh has expertise in building and communicating analytical solutions. He writes about the methods and technologies for the application of data and mathematics to solve business problems. He holds master's degrees in mathematics from Northeastern University and operations research from the University of California, Irvine.

Different Methods of Demand Forecasting. Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions. Share on Facebook.

How Can AI Most Improve Human Decision-Making? - Decision Summit Cambridge 2018

Operational Value Many businesses rely on their Information Technology IT systems to manage data, facilitate payments and run operations. Strategic Value In steering the direction of your business, statistics can be used to guide long-term forecasts for strategic planning.

Software Data is abundant for many types of businesses.On the surface this would make sense. Nadal is the King of Clay and has won this very tournament a record-breaking eight times.

What the bookmakers had overlooked was that Fognini had beaten Nadal on clay only a few months earlier in Rio De Janeiro. There is a big emphasis on brand loyalty in the betting business.

Because it's such a competitive sector, companies will try and lure you to bet with them and only them. Whether this is through various loyalty schemes or special in-shop offers, the intention is the same. Don't let them make you think you shouldn't shop around. Check the offers available for specific bets.

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The first goalscorer market is one of the most popular bets in football and as a result, bookies all have their own spin on it. Betfred will double the odds if your player scores twice and treble the odds if he scores a third time. Ladbrokes, on the other hand, will double the odds if he scores within 25 minutes and you will probably find that most other bookies have their own version to try and get you through their doors instead of someone else's.

Your research should tell you which of these offers will most suit you for any given match. Be flexible and be prepared to put in the leg work. This is something that, even though it seems like common sense, punters forget all the time. The fewer selections you include in your bet, the more chance you stand of winning. If you're betting to make money think small, not big. One team or selection if you can stake enough. Three or four maximum. Once you find yourself putting that 20-fold accumulator on, you really are on cloud cuckoo land.

Bookies lose most of their money from singles. But trebles usually offer a decent return if you really do want a higher payout.

Decision Making: Characteristics, Nature, Techniques and Other Details

If you do find yourself desperately wanting that long-shot bet on a Saturday afternoon, do not pad out your accumulator with odds-on selections. You're decreasing your chance of winning for next to no extra cash.

This is really easy to do in tennis. It's the opening week of a Grand Slam and you see the top players are all drawn against relative unknowns. It would seem like a great idea to lump them altogether in a multiple to try and win some easy money. But this would be a mistake. It would make more sense to do some research and find an up-and-coming player who has a favourable draw and back them at a better price.

Again, once you've done enough research, you should know you're sport well enough to find better value in the hundreds of other markets the bookies offer. It is arguably a way for the bookies just to provide you with more ways to lose but you can find the good prices if you look hard enough.

They're higher than them in the league but does that mean they're a stronger team. That's for the football pages to discuss. But just a minimal amount of research shows that Jamie Vardy is the league's top scorer. So betting on him to score anytime is as safe as bets come. While we're on the subject of the less obvious markets, if you do pick an obscure one, make sure to check the terms with the betting shop staff.

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If you back your team to win both halves, you are betting on them to win the first half and the second half separately.